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日期:2020-08-07 13:30:00
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1.   If during the long course of ages and under varying conditions of life, organic beings vary at all in the several parts of their organisation, and I think this cannot be disputed; if there be, owing to the high geometrical powers of increase of each species, at some age, season, or year, a severe struggle for life, and this certainly cannot be disputed; then, considering the infinite complexity of the relations of all organic beings to each other and to their conditions of existence, causing an infinite diversity in structure, constitution, and habits, to be advantageous to them, I think it would be a most extraordinary fact if no variation ever had occurred useful to each being's own welfare, in the same way as so many variations have occurred useful to man. But if variations useful to any organic being do occur, assuredly individuals thus characterised will have the best chance of being preserved in the struggle for life; and from the strong principle of inheritance they will tend to produce offspring similarly characterised. This principle of preservation, I have called, for the sake of brevity, Natural Selection. Natural selection, on the principle of qualities being inherited at corresponding ages, can modify the egg, seed, or young, as easily as the adult. Amongst many animals, sexual selection will give its aid to ordinary selection, by assuring to the most vigorous and best adapted males the greatest number of offspring. Sexual selection will also give characters useful to the males alone, in their struggles with other males.Whether natural selection has really thus acted in nature, in modifying and adapting the various forms of life to their several conditions and stations, must be judged of by the general tenour and balance of evidence given in the following chapters. But we already see how it entails extinction; and how largely extinction has acted in the world's history, geology plainly declares. Natural selection, also, leads to divergence of character; for more living beings can be supported on the same area the more they diverge in structure, habits, and constitution, of which we see proof by looking at the inhabitants of any small spot or at naturalised productions. Therefore during the modification of the descendants of any one species, and during the incessant struggle of all species to increase in numbers, the more diversified these descendants become, the better will be their chance of succeeding in the battle of life. Thus the small differences distinguishing varieties of the same species, will steadily tend to increase till they come to equal the greater differences between species of the same genus, or even of distinct genera.We have seen that it is the common, the widely-diffused, and widely-ranging species, belonging to the larger genera, which vary most; and these will tend to transmit to their modified offspring that superiority which now makes them dominant in their own countries. Natural selection, as has just been remarked, leads to divergence of character and to much extinction of the less improved and intermediate forms of life. On these principles, I believe, the nature of the affinities of all organic beings may be explained. It is a truly wonderful fact the wonder of which we are apt to overlook from familiarity that all animals and all plants throughout all time and space should be related to each other in group subordinate to group, in the manner which we everywhere behold namely, varieties of the same species most closely related together, species of the same genus less closely and unequally related together, forming sections and sub-genera, species of distinct genera much less closely related, and genera related in different degrees, forming sub-families, families, orders, sub-classes, and classes. The several subordinate groups in any class cannot be ranked in a single file, but seem rather to be clustered round points, and these round other points, and so on in almost endless cycles. On the view that each species has been independently created, I can see no explanation of this great fact in the classification of all organic beings; but, to the best of my judgment, it is explained through inheritance and the complex action of natural selection, entailing extinction and divergence of character, as we have seen illustrated in the diagram.The affinities of all the beings of the same class have sometimes been represented by a great tree. I believe this simile largely speaks the truth. The green and budding twigs may represent existing species; and those produced during each former year may represent the long succession of extinct species. At each period of growth all the growing twigs have tried to branch out on all sides, and to overtop and kill the surrounding twigs and branches, in the same manner as species and groups of species have tried to overmaster other species in the great battle for life. The limbs divided into great branches, and these into lesser and lesser branches, were themselves once, when the tree was small, budding twigs; and this connexion of the former and present buds by ramifying branches may well represent the classification of all extinct and living species in groups subordinate to groups. Of the many twigs which flourished when the tree was a mere bush, only two or three, now grown into great branches, yet survive and bear all the other branches; so with the species which lived during long-past geological periods, very few now have living and modified descendants. From the first growth of the tree, many a limb and branch has decayed and dropped off; and these lost branches of various sizes may represent those whole orders, families, and genera which have now no living representatives, and which are known to us only from having been found in a fossil state. As we here and there see a thin straggling branch springing from a fork low down in a tree, and which by some chance has been favoured and is still alive on its summit, so we occasionally see an animal like the Ornithorhynchus or Lepidosiren, which in some small degree connects by its affinities two large branches of life, and which has apparently been saved from fatal competition by having inhabited a protected station. As buds give rise by growth to fresh buds, and these, if vigorous, branch out and overtop on all sides many a feebler branch, so by generation I believe it has been with the great Tree of Life, which fills with its dead and broken branches the crust of the earth, and covers the surface with its ever branching and beautiful ramifications.
2. 刘强东2018年9月2日,网传京东CEO刘强东在美国明尼苏达州因涉嫌性侵女大学生被捕。
3.  Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the greatest of German men of letters, wasborn at Frankfort-on-the-Main, August 28, 1749. His father was a man ofmeans and position, and he personally supervised the early education of hisson. The young Goethe studied at the universities of Leipsig and Strasburg,and in 1772 entered upon the practise of law at Wetzlar. At the invitation ofKarl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar, he went in 1775 to live in Weimar,where he held a succession of political offices, becoming the Duke's chiefadviser. From 1786 to 1788 he traveled in Italy, and from 1791 to 1817directed the ducal theater at Weimar. He took part in the wars againstFrance, 1792-3, and in the following year began his friendship with Schiller,which lasted till the latter's death in 1805. In 1806 he married ChristianeVulpius. From about 1794 he devoted himself chiefly to literature, and after alife of extraordinary productiveness died at Weimar, March 22, 1832. Themost important of Goethe's works produced before he went to Weimar werehis tragedy "Gotz von Berlichingen" (1773), which first brought him fame, and"The Sorrows of Young Werther," a novel which obtained enormouspopularity during the so called "Sturm und Drang" period. During the years atWeimar before he knew Schiller he began "Wilhelm Meister," wrote thedramas, "Iphigenie," "Egmont," and "Torquato Tasso," and his "ReineckeFuchs." To the period of his friendship with Schiller belong the continuation of"Wilhelm Meister," the beautiful idyl of "Hermann and Dorothea," and the"Roman Elegies." In the last period, between Schiller's death in 1805 and hisown, appeared "Faust," "Elective Affinities," his autobiographical "Dichtungund Wahrheit" ("Poetry and Truth"), his "Italian Journey," much scientificwork, and a series of treatises on German Art.Though the foregoing enumeration contains but a selection from the titles ofGoethe's best known writings, it suffices to show the extraordinary fertility andversatility of his genius. Rarely has a man of letters had so full and varied a life,or been capable of so many-sided a development. His political and scientificactivities, though dwarfed in the eyes of our generation by his artisticproduction, yet showed the adaptability of his talent in the most diversedirections, and helped to give him that balance of temper and breadth ofvision in which he has been surpassed by no genius of the ancient or modernworld.
4.   "Oh, mademoiselle, -- mademoiselle!" cried Franz, "yourgrandfather says he can indicate the person. Help me, --lend me your assistance!" Noirtier looked at the dictionary.Franz took it with a nervous trembling, and repeated theletters of the alphabet successively, until he came to M. Atthat letter the old man signified "Yes."
5. 2005年,天津狗不理食品股份有限公司成立,2006年,狗不理被评选为第一批中华老字号。
6.   "That it is only the Pope who is infallible, and that thisinfallibility does not extend to cardinals."

文库

1. 吃饭过程中,孩子一直在餐桌附近玩耍。
2. 近日,公安部、自治区公安厅先后向固原市公安局发来唁电,对兰伟不幸殉职表示沉痛哀悼,肯定兰伟参加工作以来扎根基层、忠诚履职、干净担当,各项工作成绩优异,是80后民警的优秀代表。
3. 在此期间,雅典人发展起一个完全不同类型的社会。雅典人不是扎营住宿在怀有敌意的居民中的一伙人侵者,他们自夸是阿提卡的土著居民。同其他城邦的希腊人一样,他们最初是实行君主政体,以后让位于由九个执政官主持的寡头政治。这九个执政官是主要执政官,全部属于贵族。不过,和斯巴达大不相同的是,雅典后来朝民主化方向发展。急速发展的贸易创造出一个强有力的中产阶级,他们同失去产业的农民联合,要求政治自由化。公元前594年,所有各派别一致同意任命梭伦为首席执政官,执掌政权,施行改革。梭伦采取的减轻社会痛苦的措施是简单而又严厉的。他将债务人失去的全部土地所有权归还债务人,让因负债而变成奴隶的所有平民都重新获得自由,并永远禁止债务奴隶制。在政治领域,第一次准许没有财产的平民参加公民大会,不过,公民大会拥有的权力仍旧很有限。另外,还规定富裕商人可担任执政官;还设立新的、更受欢迎的陪审法庭来代替贵族最高法院的一部分权力。总之,梭伦的贡献在于,在组织上为以后建立著名的雅典民主奠定了基础。
4. 如发现身边有以上情形者,要及时向有关部门投诉举报。
5.   随后,红星新闻致电南宁市劳动人事争议仲裁院,该院一名工作人员对此表示惊讶,她说:这个可以向公安报案或向法院提起法律诉讼。
6. 出那么多事情,迟迟不告知我。

推荐功能

1. 这些人或多或少地伴有便秘、脱发、失眠、骨质疏松、卵巢早衰等症状。
2. 最根本的原因是,应用商店的模式再往后走就一定会碰到钉钉和企业微信,难得一胜。
3. 不过,王思聪在创业过程中,遇到的那些深刻教育却值得我们探讨:首先,王思聪的投资摊子铺得有些过大,普思资本目前投资规模超过30亿元人民币,投资案例包括网鱼网咖、360、英雄互娱、大众点评、人人车等32家公司,其中不乏一些已经上市的成功投资项目
4. 设想某国政府对美国小说实施配额,规定每个人一辈子只看一本美国小说。结果会怎么样?是的,结果是大多数人都会选一本质量最高的美国小说。但这好吗?不好!要是没有限制。多数人宁愿多看一些不那么好的小说。
5. 这就要求在软件上为常见的对话做大量针对性建模优化。
6. 然而,理性地追求物质享受只是人类的本能,而不是价值观。价值观不是本能,而是精英们制造的关于社会关系的观念,要求在获取个人利益的同时不能不择手段,不能伤害社会中他人的利益。物质利益是重要的,成为“主义”,则反社会了。个人理性是重要的,成为“主义”,也是反社会的。本能以利己为要,而社会价值观在本质上是利他的。当社会精英把“人类社会”的法则简化为市场法则,甚至简化为动物界法则,普适道德就成了“理性主义者”们的逻辑“累赘”。维系人类社会,靠的是人类成千上万年痛苦积淀的普适道德规则,亦称“正义”或“基本法”,是深深种植在人类心灵里的。

应用

1. 加拿大与拉丁美洲和美国形成鲜明对照的是,19世纪期间英国殖民地在维持与帝国的关系的同时逐渐赢得了自治。如前所述,这一独特发展的基础就是德拉姆伯爵1839年提出的责任政府制的原则。这个观念太新、太激进,不能马上为人们所接受,但是,英国政府的确迅速实行了他的将两个加拿大重新联合起来的建议。1841年生效的《加拿大法案》规定,加拿大联合议会由上院和下院组成;上院由总督任命,是终生的,下院在相当广泛的选举权的基础上选举产生。行政部长将由总督选拔,这使总督能任命属于下院中多数党的那些人,从而建立责任政府制。
2. 在路上和医院时,尽可能远离其他人(至少1米)。
3. [3]、[6]蒋廷黻口述、谢钟琏译:《蒋廷黻回忆录》(以下简称《回忆录》),第一章:《我的先人和老家》,台湾传记文学出版社1984年版,第5页。该回忆录是蒋廷黻于1965年退休后,应美国哥伦比亚"中国口述历史学部"之邀,口述生平经历的结集。原稿系英文。台湾《传记文学》杂志从哥大购得英文原稿,约请谢钟琏译成中文,在该杂志分期连载,并于1979年出版单行本。
4. 一觉睡到早上6点,一试表,还是发烧。
5.   "Call Mr. Felton," said he. "Wait a minute longer, and I willintroduce him to you."
6.   `Ah!' returned the other, sighing: `yes! The same Sydney, with the same luck. Even then, I did exercises for other boys, and seldom did my own.'

旧版特色

1.   SHERLOCK HOLMES
2. X
3.   My worthy friend Jehannot, thou art extremely desirous, that Ishould convert to Christianitie, and I am well contented to doe it;onely upon this condition: That first I wil journey to Rome, to seehim whom thou sayest, is Gods general Vicar here on earth, and toconsider on the course of his life and manners, and likewise of hisColledge of Cardinals. If he and they doe appeare such men to mee,as thy speeches affirme them to be, and thereby I may comprehendthat thy Faith and Religion is better then mine, as with no meanepaines thou endevourest to perswade mee, I will become a Christianas thou art: but if I finde it otherwise, I will continue as I am, aJew.

网友评论(63935 / 18708 )

  • 1:爱德华斯诺登 2020-07-18 13:30:00

    国内竞争特斯拉在不久的将来将不可避免地在中国面临更多本地竞争,尽管分析人士预计,特斯拉面临的竞争将来自宝马和梅赛德斯等汽车制造商,而不是来自市场上已经存在的过多的中国汽车品牌。

  • 2:逄忠平 2020-08-06 13:30:00

    终于安装上了,你要更换绑定的银行卡?换车了要过户?设备失效了要重新激活?要注销ETC?对不起,这事不归我们管,我们也不知道该找谁。

  • 3:谭昌杰 2020-07-26 13:30:00

    更重要的是,钱晶重组了网点的组织架构:重新划分了部门以及部门功能,并根据部门不同设置了新的管理层。

  • 4:曾玉春 2020-07-25 13:30:00

    视频资料显示,法子英当时躲在床后,手持一个密码箱挡在胸前。

  • 5:许振光 2020-07-19 13:30:00

    "It's like a real party!" cried Ermengarde.

  • 6:任鹏宇 2020-07-23 13:30:00

      I mean by this expression that the whole organisation is so tied together during its growth and development, that when slight variations in any one part occur, and are accumulated through natural selection, other parts become modified. This is a very important subject, most imperfectly understood. The most obvious case is, that modifications accumulated solely for the good of the young or larva, will, it may safely be concluded, affect the structure of the adult; in the same manner as any malconformation affecting the early embryo, seriously affects the whole organisation of the adult. The several parts of the body which are homologous, and which, at an early embryonic period, are alike, seem liable to vary in an allied manner: we see this in the right and left sides of the body varying in the same manner; in the front and hind legs, and even in the jaws and limbs, varying together, for the lower jaw is believed to be homologous with the limbs. These tendencies, I do not doubt, may be mastered more or less completely by natural selection: thus a family of stags once existed with an antler only on one side; and if this had been of any great use to the breed it might probably have been rendered permanent by natural selection.Homologous parts, as has been remarked by some authors, tend to cohere; this is often seen in monstrous plants; and nothing is more common than the union of homologous parts in normal structures, as the union of the petals of the corolla into a tube. Hard parts seem to affect the form of adjoining soft parts; it is believed by some authors that the diversity in the shape of the pelvis in birds causes the remarkable diversity in the shape of their kidneys. Others believe that the shape of the pelvis in the human mother influences by pressure the shape of the head of the child. In snakes, according to Schlegel, the shape of the body and the manner of swallowing determine the position of several of the most important viscera.

  • 7:冯志明 2020-07-29 13:30:00

      Our over-joyed Scholler, applauding his happy Starres, forfurthering him with faire a way to his revenge; immagining that it wasalready halfe executed, made the Image in due forme, and wrote anold Fable, insted of a Charme; both which he sent to the Lady, sosoone as he thought the time to be fitting: and this admonitionwithall, that the Moone being entering into the full, without anylonger delay, she might venter on the businesse the next nightfollowing; and remaine assured to repossesse her friend. Afterward forthe better pleasing of himselfe, he went secretly attended, onely byhis servant, to the house of a trusty frend of his, who dweltsomwhat neere to the Turret, there to expect the issue of thisLady-like enterprize. And Madam Helena accompanied with none butAncilla walked on to her dairy Farme, where the night ensuing,pretending to take her rest sooner then formerly she used to doe,she commanded Ancilla to bed, referring her selfe to her best liking.

  • 8:王力勇 2020-08-06 13:30:00

    “开创”意味着我们做的是前人和同行没有做过的事,如果做同行和前人做过的事,这是职业经理人,而不是创业者。

  • 9:林佳龙 2020-08-06 13:30:00

      `You have a visitor, you see,' said Monsieur Defarge.

  • 10:车友岑 2020-07-28 13:30:00

    A large building opened before us, a very heavy thick-walled impressive place, big, and old-looking; of gray stone, not like the rest of the town.

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