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1.   I think these views further explain what has sometimes been noticed namely that we know nothing about the origin or history of any of our domestic breeds. But, in fact, a breed, like a dialect of a language, can hardly be said to have had a definite origin. A man preserves and breeds from an individual with some slight deviation of structure, or takes more care than usual in matching his best animals and thus improves them, and the improved individuals slowly spread in the immediate neighbourhood. But as yet they will hardly have a distinct name, and from being only slightly valued, their history will be disregarded. When further improved by the same slow and gradual process, they will spread more widely, and will get recognised as something distinct and valuable, and will then probably first receive a provincial name. In semi-civilised countries, with little free communication, the spreading and knowledge of any new sub-breed will be a slow process. As soon as the points of value of the new sub-breed are once fully acknowledged, the principle, as I have called it, of unconscious selection will always tend, perhaps more at one period than at another, as the breed rises or falls in fashion, perhaps more in one district than in another, according to the state of civilisation of the inhabitants slowly to add to the characteristic features of the breed, whatever they may be. But the chance will be infinitely small of any record having been preserved of such slow, varying, and insensible changes.I must now say a few words on the circumstances, favourable, or the reverse, to man's power of selection. A high degree of variability is obviously favourable, as freely giving the materials for selection to work on; not that mere individual differences are not amply sufficient, with extreme care, to allow of the accumulation of a large amount of modification in almost any desired direction. But as variations manifestly useful or pleasing to man appear only occasionally, the chance of their appearance will be much increased by a large number of individuals being kept; and hence this comes to be of the highest importance to success. On this principle Marshall has remarked, with respect to the sheep of parts of Yorkshire, that 'as they generally belong to poor people, and are mostly in small lots, they never can be improved.' On the other hand, nurserymen, from raising large stocks of the same plants, are generally far more successful than amateurs in getting new and valuable varieties. The keeping of a large number of individuals of a species in any country requires that the species should be placed under favourable conditions of life, so as to breed freely in that country. When the individuals of any species are scanty, all the individuals, whatever their quality may be, will generally be allowed to breed, and this will effectually prevent selection. But probably the most important point of all, is, that the animal or plant should be so highly useful to man, or so much valued by him, that the closest attention should be paid to even the slightest deviation in the qualities or structure of each individual. Unless such attention be paid nothing can be effected. I have seen it gravely remarked, that it was most fortunate that the strawberry began to vary just when gardeners began to attend closely to this plant. No doubt the strawberry had always varied since it was cultivated, but the slight varieties had been neglected. As soon, however, as gardeners picked out individual plants with slightly larger, earlier, or better fruit, and raised seedlings from them, and again picked out the best seedlings and bred from them, then, there appeared (aided by some crossing with distinct species) those many admirable varieties of the strawberry which have been raised during the last thirty or forty years.In the case of animals with separate sexes, facility in preventing crosses is an important element of success in the formation of new races, at least, in a country which is already stocked with other races. In this respect enclosure of the land plays a part. Wandering savages or the inhabitants of open plains rarely possess more than one breed of the same species. Pigeons can be mated for life, and this is a great convenience to the fancier, for thus many races may be kept true, though mingled in the same aviary; and this circumstance must have largely favoured the improvement and formation of new breeds. Pigeons, I may add, can be propagated in great numbers and at a very quick rate, and inferior birds may be freely rejected, as when killed they serve for food. On the other hand, cats, from their nocturnal rambling habits, cannot be matched, and, although so much valued by women and children, we hardly ever see a distinct breed kept up; such breeds as we do sometimes see are almost always imported from some other country, often from islands. Although I do not doubt that some domestic animals vary less than others, yet the rarity or absence of distinct breeds of the cat, the donkey, peacock, goose, &c., may be attributed in main part to selection not having been brought into play: in cats, from the difficulty in pairing them; in donkeys, from only a few being kept by poor people, and little attention paid to their breeding; in peacocks, from not being very easily reared and a large stock not kept; in geese, from being valuable only for two purposes, food and feathers, and more especially from no pleasure having been felt in the display of distinct breeds.To sum up on the origin of our Domestic Races of animals and plants. I believe that the conditions of life, from their action on the reproductive system, are so far of the highest importance as causing variability. I do not believe that variability is an inherent and necessary contingency, under all circumstances, with all organic beings, as some authors have thought. The effects of variability are modified by various degrees of inheritance and of reversion. Variability is governed by many unknown laws, more especially by that of correlation of growth. Something may be attributed to the direct action of the conditions of life. Something must be attributed to use and disuse. The final result is thus rendered infinitely complex. In some cases, I do not doubt that the intercrossing of species, aboriginally distinct, has played an important part in the origin of our domestic productions. When in any country several domestic breeds have once been established, their occasional intercrossing, with the aid of selection, has, no doubt, largely aided in the formation of new sub-breeds; but the importance of the crossing of varieties has, I believe, been greatly exaggerated, both in regard to animals and to those plants which are propagated by seed. In plants which are temporarily propagated by cuttings, buds, &c., the importance of the crossing both of distinct species and of varieties is immense; for the cultivator here quite disregards the extreme variability both of hybrids and mongrels, and the frequent sterility of hybrids; but the cases of plants not propagated by seed are of little importance to us, for their endurance is only temporary. Over all these causes of Change I am convinced that the accumulative action of Selection, whether applied methodically and more quickly, or unconsciously and more slowly, but more efficiently, is by far the predominant power.
2. 2。儒家思想道教也吸收了儒家的伦理纲常思想。《太平经》大肆宣扬天、地、君、父、师信仰的重要性,就是来源于《荀子》的礼有三本:天地者,生之本也;先祖者,类之本也;君师者,治之本也。无天地恶生?无先祖恶出?无君师恶治?三者偏亡焉无安人。故礼上事天、下事地,尊先祖而隆君师,是礼之三本也①的思想。葛洪以忠、孝、和、顺、仁、信等德行作为修仙的必备条件。他说:欲求仙者,要当以忠、孝、和、顺、仁、信为本。若德行不修,而但务方木,皆不得长生也。②《老子想尔注》也把忠孝作为长生成仙的条件或前提。
3.   'Copperfield, ma'am,' I said.
4. 2月10日,《银行家》杂志主管单位山西省社科院的机关纪委书记孙勇告诉澎湃新闻记者,作为主管主办单位,具体的处理意见是由《银行家》杂志进行整改处理。
5. 我们先是考察简单再生产,假定全部剩余价值作为收入花掉。实际上,剩余价值在正常情况下总要有一部分作为收入花掉,另一部分则资本化,至于一定期间内生产的剩余价值是否有时全部消费掉,有时全部资本化,这是完全没有关系的。从运动的平均情况——总公式也只能代表这个平均情况——来看,这两种情形都会发生。为了不使公式复杂化,最好还是假定剩余价值全部积累起来。公式P…W'—G'—W'=A+Pm…P'表示这样一个生产资本,它按更大的规模,以更大的价值被再生产出来,并且又作为已经增大的生产资本,开始它的第二次循环,或者说,更新它的第一次循环。一旦这第二次循环开始,P就又成为起点;不过,这个P,和第一个P相比,已经是一个更大的生产资本。正如在G…G'公式中当G'开始第二次循环时,G'是作为G,作为一定量的预付货币资本执行职能;它和用来开始第一次循环的货币资本相比,是一个更大的货币资本,但是,一旦它作为预付货币资本执行职能,它由剩余价值资本化而增大的一切关系便都消失了。这个起源在它用来开始循环的货币资本的形式中消失了。一旦P'作为一个新循环的起点执行职能,情形也是这样。
6.   The Story of the Fisherman


1.   He had Carrie. His furniture was being paid for. He wasmaintaining his position. As for Carrie, the amusements he couldgive her would have to do for the present. He could probablykeep up his pretensions sufficiently long without exposure tomake good, and then all would be well. He failed therein to takeaccount of the frailties of human nature--the difficulties ofmatrimonial life. Carrie was young. With him and with hervarying mental states were common. At any moment the extremes offeeling might be anti-polarised at the dinner table. This oftenhappens in the best regulated families. Little things broughtout on such occasions need great love to obliterate themafterward. Where that is not, both parties count two and two andmake a problem after a while.
2. 5月9日,新京报记者联系袁峰牧场所在地工伤能力鉴定中心的第二天,该中心给袁峰打了电话,通知他下周五去做工伤等级鉴定。
3.   'And the boy's is, of all such dispositions that ever I have seen,' remarked his sister, 'the most confirmed and stubborn. I think, my dear Clara, even you must observe it?'
4.   Such be the fate of every flea!
5. 生死关头,周兴文惦念的是患者周兴文没有完成的手术由同事胡晓峰医生接力完成。
6.   4. Penmark: On the west coast of Brittany, between Brest and L'Orient. The name is composed of two British words, "pen," mountain, and "mark," region; it therefore means the mountainous country


1. 而在一年前,台湾的反华人士就选择了向日葵作为他们反华事业的标志。
2.   The king, much moved, begged the vizir to examine into this new misfortune, and the latter at once went to the tower, where he found the prince quietly reading a book. After the first exchange of greetings the vizir said:
3. 事实也的确如此,目前来看,现在一二线城市的在线招聘平台切入下沉市场、基础用工的难度非常大线上方面,看起来似乎是在线招聘平台的优势。
4. aZ仁V一(1一占)V]=占3V
5. 随着超前点播模式引发争议,不少媒体也在微博上发起了视频网站涨会员费接受度的调查。
6. 抢房的同时,长沙房价也逐步升温。


1. 半坡小学,坐落在川黔交界的赤水河峡谷一座无名大山半腰处。
2. 一三六三年三月,朱元璋领兵北救安丰,四月,陈友谅大举围攻洪都。五月,又分兵夺得朱部的吉安、临江。七月,朱元璋亲自领兵救洪都,朱、陈展开激战。陈友谅迎战于鄱阳湖,联结大船为阵。朱军分军十一队,以小船轻驶御战。激战三日,值东北风起,朱元璋纵火攻陈军。陈军大乱,陈友谅弟友仁败死。陈友谅突围出湖口,朱元璋在泾江口邀击,陈友谅中流矢死。余部挟陈友谅子陈理逃回武昌。
3. 据介绍,贵阳还采取在网络平台曝光不文明行为的方式,提醒大家遵守规范
4.   "Oh," exclaimed Dantes, "you are goodness itself."
5. 张炬,企业管理体系构建专家,中国企业联合会管理咨询委员会理事、EMBA国际联盟管理咨询委员会秘书长。
6. 纵观今年全球自动驾驶,不同场景下的自动驾驶运营车队、无人低速小车等正在比以往更受关注,而地平线征程二代+Matrix,最核心竞争力依然在感知计算领域。


1. 梅也研究《易经》,著有《古易考原》一书。但明人治《易经》,影响较大的还是朱谋玮的《周易象通》。古人讲《易经》,历来有“象”、“数”之别。因卦爻以观象,寻象以观意。数即“天一地二,天三地四,……”和“太极生两仪,两仪生四象,四象生八卦”,依据数字推衍和互乘,以说明万物的演变。宋代理学家着重讲数,并依据伪造的“河图”、“洛书”,造出“先天图”、“太极图”等,以推衍哲理。朱谋玮用解象来解说《易经》,是有意与讲数的理学对立。朱谋玮又指斥宋儒的“河图”、“洛书”为伪作,破除了历来对“河图”、“洛书”的迷信。但他自称曾在明内府见到过伏羲制作的真“河图”,则是为辨伪而有意作伪,是不足取的。
2. 从业经验方面,只有大数据领域的算法工程师接受应届生,其余则需至少1年以上从业经验。
3. 所谓住宅专项维修资金,就是业主交的一笔专门用来维修、改造住宅共用部位和共用设施的钱。

网友评论(52455 / 48712 )

  • 1:谭超 2020-07-30 03:23:28

      It was late that evening before I returned to Baker Street andgave an account of my mission. Holmes lay with his gaunt figurestretched in his deep chair, his pipe curling forth slow wreaths ofacrid tobacco, while his eyelids drooped over his eyes so lazilythat he might almost have been asleep were it not that at any haltor questionable passage of my narrative they half lifted, and two grayeyes, as bright and keen as rapiers, transfixed me with theirsearching glance.

  • 2:庞警官 2020-07-21 03:23:28

    What Terry meant by saying they had no "modesty" was that this great life-view had no shady places; they had a high sense of personal decorum, but no shame--no knowledge of anything to be ashamed of.

  • 3:鲁茨 2020-07-19 03:23:28


  • 4:廖世平 2020-07-25 03:23:28

      'How sad to be lying now on a sick bed, and to be in danger ofdying! This world is pleasant- it would be dreary to be called fromit, and to have to go who knows where?'

  • 5:张冬成 2020-07-22 03:23:28

      "Ah, reverend sir, tell me, do you wish me dead?"

  • 6:吕玉兰 2020-08-05 03:23:28


  • 7:斯蒂夫 2020-07-31 03:23:28


  • 8:黄桷 2020-07-28 03:23:28

      Miss Pross and he divided the night into two watches, and observed him at intervals from the adjoining room. He paced up and down for a long time before he lay down; but, when he did finally lay himself down, he fell asleep. In the morning, he was up betimes, and went straight to his bench and to work.

  • 9:王智珣 2020-07-26 03:23:28

      `Towards whom?'

  • 10:张昌华 2020-07-29 03:23:28